What are the best enzymes?
There are many types of enzymes available. Some of them have been used for centuries and some were developed only recently. There are different kinds of enzymes: proteases, amylase, lipases, glucose oxidase, malic acid dehydrogenase (MAD), lysozyme and others. All these enzymes are useful in various areas of medicine. However, there are two main categories of enzymes: those that are good at breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars and those that break down complex fats into simpler ones. These two groups differ because the former have a better ability to work with certain foods while the latter can handle most types of food.
The first type of enzyme is called a protease or amylase enzyme. They are found in all living organisms. Their job is to digest the complex carbohydrates into simple sugars.
For example, they break down starch into its simplest form, glucose. Proteases play a very important role in maintaining life processes such as digestion and metabolism.
The second kind of enzyme is called a lipase or malic acid dehydrogenase (MAD) enzyme. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Their job is to digest the complex fat into simpler forms of fat.
There are two types of lipases: those that work best with saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. The other group works best with unsaturated fat (polyunsaturated and polyunsaturated). One of the most common lipases in this class is called pancreatic lipase.
It works with triglycerides (complex fat molecules that are composed of three fatty acids).
Acids, bases, and enzymes
Acids such as lactic acid are found in muscles, batteries, and many other places. Bases such as sodium hydroxide (lye) are also found in many places: for example, soaps are basic (they have a high pH value), as is baking soda (although it’s more acidic than most bases). There are several types of pH scales used to measure acids and bases (such as the pH scale, the pOH scale, and the pK a scale).
The most useful ones for us are the pH scale and the pOH scale. Acids have low pH values, while bases have high pH values. The further away from 7 (neutral, water) a substance is, the stronger its properties are. For example, battery acid has a pH value of 1, so it is extremely acidic. Lemon juice has a pH value of 2, so it is more acidic than battery acid. Water has a pH value of 7, so it is neutral. Strong bases such as Naomi hydroxide have a pH value of 13, and thus are extremely basic (lye has a pH value of 14). In our bodies, the levels of acidity and basicity need to be balanced. Most biochemical reactions happen optimally at a pH value of 7. Blood has a pH value of 7.35 to 7.45, so it is just slightly basic.
Enzymes are proteins that can increase the rate of a reaction by a factor of up to a trillion (10^12). In addition, enzymes only work to accelerate certain reactions and not all chemical reactions. For example, lipases are enzymes that break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
Without these enzymes, fats could not be broken down and your body would store all its fat in your cells instead of utilizing them for energy or to make other compounds. Proteases are another important class of enzyme. They break down proteins into amino acids. This is important, because it allows your body to get the amino acids it needs to synthesize new proteins and maintain muscle tissue and skin.
The four types of enzymes are listed below. The first three types break down larger molecules into smaller ones, while the last one builds up larger molecules from smaller ones:
Hydrolases break down a compound using water (e.g. esterases break down esters using water)
– Esters are common in organic chemistry and they smell really bad. It takes an esterase to break the molecule down so that it doesn’t smell anymore.
Isomerases rearrange atoms within a molecule without breaking the molecule down (e.g. molecularity)
Ligases join two molecules with a double bond (e.g. in DNA)
Lyases break down a molecule using something other than water (e.g. olygases break down alcohols using sulfur)
(Note: Not all enzymes fit this model, e.g. there are ones that build up molecules from smaller ones, like ribozymes which perform RNA editing in the mitochondria)
In 1924, James B. Sumner broke down the different types of enzymes into seven categories based upon their actions on substrates.
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